Population information

Nom ordre Anseriformes
Nom famille Anatidae
Nom scientifique Clangula hyemalis Nom courant Long-tailed Duck
Nom population Western Siberia/North Europe (bre)
Aire de reproduction W Siberia, N Europe Aire de non-reproduction N Atlantic, Baltic, N Seas, C European Lakes
Catégorie de la Liste Rouge Vulnerable
Regions Ramsar Asia Europe
Notes

Réseau de conservation

Réseau de conservation Notes
AEWA
CAF Action Plan
EUBD
Note:

Taille de population

Publication Start year End year Minimum Maximum Estimate quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 2,000,000 2,000,000 No quality assessment [R532]
WPE 2 1990 1995 4,600,000 4,600,000 No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 3 1990 1995 4,600,000 4,600,000 No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 4 1990 1995 4,600,000 4,600,000 No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 5 2007 2009 1,600,000 1,600,000 Expert opinion [S8146] [R889]
AEWA CSR 5 2000 2010 1,600,000 1,600,000 Expert opinion [S5649] [R879] [R880] [R881] [R882] [R889]
AEWA CSR 4 1993 1995 4,600,000 4,600,000 Expert opinion
AEWA CSR 6 2007 2009 1,600,000 1,600,000 Expert opinion [S8207] [R1326] [R889] [R1327] [R63] [R1362] [R1361]
AEWA CSR 7 2007 2009 1,600,000 1,600,000 Expert opinion [S9056] [R1549] [R889] [R1592]

Population trends

Publication Start year End year Trend Trend quality Notes References Actions
WPE 1 0 0 STA No quality assessment [R532]
WPE 2 1972 1989 STA No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 3 1972 1989 STA No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 4 1972 1989 STA No quality assessment [R578]
WPE 5 2000 2010 DEC Reasonable [T6153] [R889]
AEWA CSR 5 2000 2010 DEC Poor [T3748] [R879] [R880] [R881] [R882] [R889]
AEWA CSR 4 1972 1993 STA Poor
AEWA CSR 6 2000 2010 DEC Reasonable [T6212] [R882] [R1327] [R1352] [R1256]
AEWA CSR 7 1995 2010 DEC Reasonable [T7168] [R1592] [R1548] [R1583] [R1593]

Population 1% level

Publication Yearset 1 percent Note
WPE 1 1994 20000
WPE 2 1997 20000
WPE 3 2002 20000
WPE 4 2006 20000
WPE 5 2012 16000
AEWA CSR 5 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 4 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 6 -1 -1 Not Set
AEWA CSR 7 2018 16000

References

  • R532 - Pirot, J-Y., Laursen, K., Madsen, J. and Monval, J-Y. 1989. Population estimates of swans, geese, ducks, and Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) in the Western Palearctic and Sahelian Africa. In: Boyd, H. and Pirot, J.-Y. (eds.). Flyways and Reserves Networks. IWRB Spec. Publ. No.9. Slimbridge, UK
  • R578 - Scott, D.A. and Rose, P.M. 1996. Atlas of Anatidae populations in Africa and western Eurasia. Wetlands International Publication No. 41. Wetlands International, Wageningen, NL. 336 pp.
  • R889 - Skov, H., Hein?nen, S., ?ydelis, R, Bellebaum, J., Bzoma, S., Dagys, M., Durinck, J., Garthe, S., Grishanov, G., Hario, M., Kieckbusch, J.K., Kube, J., Kuresoo, A., Larsson, K., Luigujoe, L., Meissner, W., Nehls, H.W., Nilsson, L., Petersen, I.K., Roos, M.M., Pihl, S., Sonntag, N. Stock, A. and A. Stipniece. 2011. Waterbird populations and pressures in the Baltic Sea. TemaNord 2010: XX. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
  • R879 - Ellermaa, M., Pettay, T., and K?n?nen, J. 2010: Autumn migration in P??saspea Cape in 2009. ? Hirundo 23(1):21-46. http://www.eoy.ee/hirundo/sisukorrad/2010_1/Ellermaa_etal_23_1.pdf
  • R880 - Hario, M., Rintala, J. and Nordenswan, G. 2009: Allin aallonpohjat It?merell? ? taustalla ?ljyvahingot, sopulisyklit vai mets?stys? ? Suomen Riista 55: 83?96. (in Finnish with English summary)
  • R881 - Lehikoinen, A., Ekroos, J., Jaatinen, K., Lehikoinen, P., Lind?n, A.., Piha, M., Vattulainen, A., V?h?talo, A. 2008: Lintukantojen kehitys Hangon lintuaseman aineiston mukaan 1979?2007 ? Tringa 35 (4): 146?209. (in Finnish only)
  • R882 - Nilsson, L.and M?nsson, J. 2010. Counts of staging and wintering waterfowl, geese and cranes in Sweden. Annual report 2009/10. Department of Biology, Lund University. 53 pp. (in Swedish with English summary) http://www.zoo.ekol.lu.se/waterfowl/ANDINV/ANDRAP/Waterfowl_Report_09-10.pdf
  • R1326 - Musgrove, A. J., Austin, G. E., Hearn, R. D., Holt, C. A., Stroud, D. A., & Wotton, S. R. (2011). Overwinter population estimates of British waterbirds. British Birds, 104(7), 364.
  • R1327 - Nilsson, L. 2012. Distribution and numbers of wintering sea ducks in Swedish offshore waters. Ornis Svecica 22: 39-59.
  • R63 - BirdLife International (2004)b. Birds in Europe, population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International. (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 12).
  • R1362 - European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity (in prep) Population and trend data provided by the EU Member States in the frame of their reporting under Article 12 of the EU Birds Directive. Online fact sheets. European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity, Paris. URL: http://bd.eionet.europa.eu/activities/Reporting/Article_12/Reports_2013/Member_State_Deliveries. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1361 - BirdLife International, BTO, EBCC, CSO, IUCN, RSPB, SOVON, Wetlands International (in prep) Population and trend data provided to the European Red List of Birds Project funded by the European Commission. Digital dataset. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK. Accessed on 31 July 2014.
  • R1352 - Aunins, A., Nilsson, L., Hario, M., Garthe, S., Dagys, M., Pedersen, I.K., Skov, H., Lehikoinen, A., Mikkola-Roos, M., Ranft, S., Stipniece, A., Luigujoe, L., Kuresoo, A., Meissner, W. and Korpinen, S. 2013. Abundance of waterbirds in the wintering season. HELCOM Core Indicator Report. URL: http://www.helcom.fi/Core%20Indicators/HELCOM-CoreIndicator_Abundance_of_waterbirds_in_the_wintering_season.pdf.
  • R1256 - Musgrove, A.J., Austin, G.E., Hearn, R.D., Holt, C.A., Stroud, D.A. and Wotton, S.R.. 2011. Overwinter population estimates of British waterbirds. British Birds 104: 364-397.
  • R1549 - BirdLife International 2015. European Red List of Birds. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. http://datazone.birdlife.org/info/euroredlist
  • R1592 - Hearn, R.D., A.L. Harrison & P.A. Cranswick. 2015. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis, 2016–2025. URL: http://www.unep-aewa.org/sites/default/files/document/mop6_27_draft_issap_ltd.pdf
  • R1548 - Wetlands International (2017) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2015. Ede, The Netherlands: Wetlands International. URL: http://iwc.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends
  • R1583 - HELCOM (2017). Abundance of waterbirds in the wintering season. HELCOM core indicator report. URL: http://helcom.fi/Core%20Indicators/Abundance%20of%20waterbirds%20in%20wintering%20season_HELCOM%20core%20indicator%20-%20HOLAS%20II%20component.pdf
  • R1593 - Markones in litt. 2017. Experts comments/questions to reports on seaduck trend results based on IWC data for AEWA CSR7 Compiled at JWGBIRD meeting 9 November 2017, Riga
  • R1625 - BirdLife International (in prep) European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.
  • R1619 - Nagy, S. & Langendoen, T. (2020) Flyway trend analyses based on data from the African-Eurasian Waterbird Census from the period of 1967-2018. Online publication. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands. URL: http://iwc.test.wetlands.org/index.php/aewatrends8

Notes

  • S8146 - Skov et al. 2011. 1,480,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 90% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 65% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
  • T6153 - Skov et al. 2011. 1,480,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 90% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 65% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution. Four sources (889, 890, 891, 892) indicate a collapse of 70% in the population wintering around Sweden, Finland and Estonia between 1995 and 2010.
  • S5649 - 899. 1,480,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 90% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 65% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution.
  • T3748 - 899. 1,480,000 in Baltic Sea 2007-2009. Over 90% of this population occurred in the Baltic in the 1990s and this implies a 65% decline since the last comprehensive survey assuming a similar current distribution. Four sources (889, 890, 891, 892) indicate a collapse of 70% in the population wintering around Sweden, Finland and Estonia between 1995 and 2010.
  • S8207 - Skov et al. (2011) estimated the number of Long-tailed ducks at 1.486,000 individuals in the Baltic Sea based on surveys and modelling in 2007-2009. The total of the national estimates in the wintering range is 1,238,490-2,287,117 individuals, but this includes the entire UK wintering population (11,000 birds), but does not include some 80,000-120,000 birds wintering off Norway (BirdLife International, 2004). In addition, adding up the national minimum and maximum estimates usually generates a broader estimate than an annual count total and less accurate.
  • T6212 - Additional evidence is reviewed by Aunis et al (2013) and Musgrove (2011).
  • S9056 - Skov et al. (2011) estimated the number of Long-tailed ducks at 1.486,000 individuals in the Baltic Sea based on surveys and modelling in 2007-2009. BirdLife International (2015) has estimated the European wintering population to be around 1,300,000 - 2,600,000 individuals without Greenland, Iceland and the UK. Their breeding population estimate for Scandinavia and European Russia is 325,900 - 411,800 pairs (i.e. 978,000 - 1,235,000 individuals), but this does not include birds breeding in West Siberia. Considering the uncertainties and gaps in summing up the national estimates, the AEWA SSAP (Hearn et al. 2015) for the species has retained the current estimate until the results of the coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey of January 2016 are available.
  • T7168 - Hearn et al. (2015) have reviewed available evidence of decline. IWC-based trend analyses (HELCOM 2017, Wetlands International 2017) suggest that some recovery is taking place since the mid-2000s, but the JWGBIRD (Markones in litt) expressed doubts concerning the representativeness of land-based counts and reassessment of the trend is pending until the availability of the 2016 January Coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey.
  • S9194 - BirdLife International (in prep.) estimated the breeding population size at 168,865-216,575 pairs, or 510,000-650,000 individuals after rounding in FI, NO, RU, SE, but this does not include birds breeding in West Siberia. They estimated the wintering population size at 1,200,000-2,200,000 individuals in AL, AZ, BG, BY, CH, DE, DK, EE, FI, FO, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, RS, RU, SE, SI, UA, GB, FR. Considering the uncertainties and gaps in summing up the national estimates, the estimate in the AEWA ISSAP (Hearn et al. 2015) for the species has been retained until the results of the coordinated Baltic Seaduck Survey of January 2016 are available.
  • T7274 - There is insufficient trend data from the breeding season. Declines are reported from NO and SE (10-50%), unknown population trends from FI and RU in the short-term.(BirdLife International, in prep.). Since 1980, 20-40% increase is reported from SE, 0-25% decrease from NO and 20-29% decline from European RU. Based on BirdLife International (in prep.), it is estimated that the wintering population has changed by -25-22% in BY, CH, DE, EE, FI, FR, LT, LV, NL, NO, PL, SE, SI, GB, AL between 2009 and 2018. According to the same source, the population is estimated to suffer 49-60% decline since 1980. This is consistent with the IWC trend analysis, which shows a steep decline since1971, a moderate one since 2001 (i.e. 3 generations) and a stable trend since 2009. Based on the smoothed imputed totals, the population has decreased by 25% in 17 years, i.e. in 3 generations. However, the IWC counts might be not representative for this predominantly offshore species.



Copyright Wetlands International 2012

Citation: Wetlands International (). "Waterbird Population Estimates" . Retrieved from wpe.wetlands.org on